Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin recently addressed the key challenges facing the blockchain industry at the EDCON2023 conference in Podgorica, Montenegro. In his speech, Buterin presented a forward-looking roadmap for the future of the blockchain industry highlighting the importance of zero-knowledge proofs (zk-SNARK) and their role in shaping the Web3 ecosystem landscape over the next decade.

In this article, we will discuss the key points of Buterin's speech and explore the challenges and potential solutions for the blockchain industry.

Four Major Problems in the Blockchain Industry

Buterin identified four core issues that the blockchain sector needs to address:

· Privacy

· Smart contract security

· Scalability

· User account security



As the amount of sensitive information stored on the blockchain increases, privacy concerns become more important. Buterin emphasized the importance of zero-knowledge proofs (zk-SNARK) in preserving user privacy while still allowing for the necessary verification of transactions. He also discussed how privacy-centric projects and technologies could help organizations such as charities and political groups maintain the confidentiality of their operations and secure the trust of their stakeholders.

Smart Contract Security

Smart contracts are the backbone of many blockchain applications, but they can also be vulnerable to security threats. Buterin stressed the need for better security measures to ensure the secure execution of these contracts. He also highlighted the key role of aggregators in addressing this issue, mentioning well-known projects such as Polygon, Optimism, Arbitrum and ZK Sync, and the importance of ensuring their compatibility.


Scalability remains a key challenge for the blockchain industry, as increasing numbers of users and transactions can strain networks. Buterin emphasized the importance of improving the user experience (UX) in second-layer scaling solutions. He advocated the integration of tools such as the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and Crosschain Message Passing (CCMS), which have the potential to make L2 solutions as intuitive and user-friendly as L1.

User Account Security

Protecting user accounts and their assets is critical to the success of the blockchain industry. Buterin acknowledged the existing risks and proposed measures to strengthen the security of cryptocurrency wallets, such as multi-signature wallets and social recovery mechanisms. By using these tools, users can have greater confidence in the security of their digital assets.

Improving User Experience (UX) in Blockchain

Like other prominent figures in the crypto industry, Buterin believes that improving the user experience is a key challenge, particularly for second-layer scaling solutions. He commented on the need to bridge the gap between the two layers, allowing users to interact with blockchain networks seamlessly and more efficiently.

The integration of tools such as ENS and CCMS would help achieve this goal by making blockchain interactions more intuitive and user-friendly. A focus on new, user-centric designs and features that enhance data privacy is essential to unlocking the full potential of this transformative technology.

Strengthening Cryptocurrency Wallet Security

Buterin proposed several measures to bolster the security of cryptocurrency wallets, including multi signature wallets and social recovery mechanisms.

Multisignature Wallets

A multisignature wallet, or multisig wallet, is a special type of cryptocurrency wallet that requires the signatures of multiple owners to authorize transactions. Each owner has a unique private key, without which a transaction cannot be completed. This added layer of security makes multisig wallets one of the safest options for storing crypto assets.

Social Recovery Mechanisms

Social recovery mechanisms involve using a trusted network of friends or family members to help users recover their wallets and assets in case they lose access to their private keys. This method adds another layer of security and provides a safety net for users, ensuring that they can regain control of their digital assets even in the worst-case scenario.

Addressing Digital Payment Challenges

Buterin also outlined three critical issues in digital payments that require urgent resolution:

· Difficulty in using multiple accounts

· Privacy concerns

· Erosion of privacy in digital systems

He argued that the cryptocurrency space has the potential to create pragmatic alternatives to current payment systems, making transactions more organized and secure.

Building on the concept of privacy, Buterin praised the power of zero-knowledge proofs in ensuring transaction privacy and verification. He cited the Proof-of-Innocence protocol as an example of how it can help confirm the legitimate origin of assets without compromising personal information.

The forthcoming future is…

In the concluding part of his speech, Buterin called for the creation of more privacy-focused projects. He believes that this is critically necessary for organizations involved in fundraising, such as charities and political groups. Blockchain technology can help these organizations secure data and build trust between stakeholders, resulting in a positive social impact.


Buterin's presentation at EDCON2023 served as a reminder of the significant progress made in the blockchain industry and an acknowledgment of the challenges that lie ahead. The Ethereum founder repeatedly emphasized the importance of practical solutions that contribute to improving UX and privacy in the rapidly evolving ecosystem.

As the Web3 world is still young, it is crucial for developers to prioritize new user-oriented design and features that enhance data privacy. By addressing the key challenges and embracing innovative solutions, the blockchain industry can continue to grow and shape the future of technology and finance.

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